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MUST READ:Postpartum Depression (PPD)

Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression is a type of disorder that deals with our moods after childbirth. This can happen to both sex and it's usually a common case that usually follows between a week-a month after childbirth.

This will in no way be a positive impact to the child. The victim may experience symptoms like fatigue,loss of appetite, restlessness, having the same thoughts on constant repeat, sadness. This disorder is classified as a Psychiatry one. Some people still believe it doesn't exist whereas it does, on a 15% birth Rate. Some of the factors are bipolar disorder, complications in childbirth, psychological stress, long family history of depression, lack of support. Most woman feel unhappy or restless after childbirth but this is normal if the symptoms is suppressed between a week or two, any further signs of PPD should quickly consult a doctor for medical attention or a therapist as it is linked to emotional and physical factors.

While for the fathers it is estimated to affect around 1%-26%. Some severe cases whereby mothers do murder their children less than a year old which happens at a rate of 8 per 100,000 births in the United States. Under Emotional Persistent sadness, anxiousness or "empty" mood Severe mood swings Frustration, irritability, restlessness, anger Feelings of hopelessness or helplessness,Guilt, shame, worthlessness Low self-esteem Numbness, emptiness Exhaustion Inability to be comforted Trouble bonding with the baby Feeling inadequate in taking care of the baby Under Behavioral Lack of interest or pleasure in usual activities. Low or no energy Low libido Changes in appetite Fatigue, decreased energy and motivation Poor self-care Social withdrawal Insomnia or excessive sleep Under Cognition Diminished ability to make decisions and think clearly Lack of concentration and poor memory Fear that you can not care for the baby or fear of the baby Worry about harming self, baby, or partner.

Parent-infant relationship

This greatly affects the mother to child bond which is essential for the child's development.The mother tends to care less about the baby which in some cases, infanticide. While the major cause of Postpartum depression is not discovered yet,Hormonal changes, genetics, and major life events have been hypothesized as potential causes. Evidence suggests that hormonal changes may play a role. Hormones which have been studied include estrogen, progesterone, thyroid hormone, testosterone, corticotropin releasing hormone, and cortisol. Fathers, who are not undergoing profound hormonal changes, can also have postpartum depression. The cause may be distinct in males. Even Mothers who have had several previous children without experiencing PPD can nonetheless suffer it with their latest child.

Also violence against women do increase PPD be it physically, sexually or mentally. Violence against women is a chronic stressor, so depression may occur when someone is no longer able to respond to the violence. In the US, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists suggests healthcare providers consider depression screening for perinatal women.Additionally, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends pediatricians screen mothers for PPD at 1-month, 2-month and 4-month visits. Treatment For the treatment part we have the non-medical treatment and the medical treatment.

1) Non-medical treatment: AKA non-medication therapy Both individual social and psychological interventions appear effective in the treatment of PPD.Other forms of therapy, such as group therapy and home visits, are also effective treatments.Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has been developed and tested, and has shown promising results with lower negative parenting behavior scores in those who participated. Exercise has been found to be useful for mild and moderate cases.

2)Medical Treatment: AKA Medication There is evidence which suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective treatment for PPD.

However, the quality of the evidence is low given it is based on very few studies and patients. It remains unclear which antidepressants are most effective for treatment of PPD, and for whom antidepressants would be a better option than non-pharmacotherapy.[51] A recent study has found that adding sertraline, a specific SSRI, to psychotherapy does not appear to confer an additional benefit.

So parents out there or soon to be parents, PPD is Very much real so if you notice any symptoms or you know any parent possessing these symptoms, please call a doctor or a therapist immediately before it's too late.

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